effery B. was accused of a .27 BAC on a second time DUI resulting from a traffic accident and hit and run. He was also charged with a violation of probation for the 1st DUI. RESULT: The 2nd time DUI was dismissed based on the 6th Amendment and his probation on the 1st DUI was terminated. Eric V. was charged with a .33 BAC on a 3rd time DUI. RESULT: We won the DMV hearing on a Title 17 violation and saved his license from a minimum suspension of 6 months. Results like these are obtainable with a DUI lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Joe B. was charged with a .29 BAC on a 1st time DUI. We filed and heard a motion to suppress under penal code 1538.5. RESULT: The judge ruled in our favor and dismissed the case Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Hass E. was charged with a 2nd time DUI while he was still on probation for his first. The DA alleged that he had a .28 blood BAC, an accident at over 100 mph, and charged him with a VOP. Before trial the DA wanted Mr. E to do 120 of county jail, 90 days of a SCRAM braclet, and a $2000 fine. TRIAL: We started trial and after we excluded some evidence through the Motion in Limine process the DA re-evaluated their case. RESULT: DUI dismiss, Mr. E pled to a wet/reckless, NO jail time, NO scram, NO VOP, and a $800 fine. Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. . Daniel S. was charge with a .20% BAC after he had a solo car crash. Based on my highly regarded skills as a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer I was able to get his case DISMISSED IN COURT AND I WON THE DMV HEARING. This was the result of skill and hard work and of course I found a 4th Amendment violation. Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Christopher B. was charged with a 3rd time DUI. His 2 priors were in another state. We filed a "Motion to Strike the Priors" asserting that the out of state dui's did not meet the California equivalency test. RESULT: His out of state of priors were stricken from the record, so instead of facing a 3rd time DUI in California, he is now only facing a 1st time DUI. Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Angelina T. was charged with a DUI with an alleged BAC of .17 after she had crashed into a police station. RESULT: We won the DMV hearing and saved her license. The court issues was resolved for a no-jail time plea. Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Samuel T. was charged with a DUI with an alleged .14 BAC after he was stopped for swerving while exiting the freeway. RESULT: We subpoenaed the dash cam video which helped up win the DMV hearing and we were able to get the entire court case dismissed based on an illegal stop. Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Joe M. was charged with a .079 PAS and a .06 blood BAC after he had a solo accident on the freeway. This was a 2nd time DUI. RESULT: The DUI charges were dismissed after he pled guilty to 2 traffic violations. Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Wesley C. was accused of a .19 BAC, having a loaded gun in the car and was pulled over for allegedly weaving. RESULT: We filed a 1538.5 motion to suppress. On the day of the hearing we got the DA to dismiss the DUI and gun charge in exchange to a plea of reckless driving under cvc 23103.5. Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Melissa W. was charged with a .23 BAC on a 2nd time DUI. We filed a motion challenging the officer's reason for the stop after he alleged she "straddled" the lanes. RESULT: Case Dismissed. Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Joel D. was charged with a .18 blood BAC after he had a car accident on the freeway at 2:00 in the morning. Joel had poor field sobriety test and allegedly a strong odor of alcohol on his breath. RESULT: We won the DMV hearing and saved his license and his ability to get back and forth to work. We showed that the BAC result was ambiguous as to the date of testing and the date of reporting. Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. ~~Dennis H: was charged with a .10 BAC after he allegedly failed the field sobriety tests and had a strong odor of alcohol on his breath. RESULT: ALL DUI charges dismissed. Dennis plead guilty to a moving traffic violation. We also overturned his loss at the DMV and got his license back. ~~Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Jacob Q: was charged with a DUI after he had a solo car crash. The police arrived and after investigation they arrested Jacob. RESULT: At the DMV hearing I was able to show that the police officer could NOT establish that Jacob drove a vehicle within 3 hours of the blood test. Thus, I saved his license, the increased cost of auto insurance, and the 10 year mark on his driving record. ~~Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Danielle M: was charged with a .18 blood BAC after she was stopped for weaving. After some considerable time and effort we were able to plead it down to a wet/reckless under 23103.5 ~~Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Diana L: was charged with a .10 blood BAC. During the discovery process we found out that the phlebotomist had done 2 blood draws at once and may have mixed up the vials during the labeling process. What was also odd was that our client blew a .06 at the station after the blood draw on a PAS breath unit. RESULT: case reduced to a dry reckless and the dui charges were dismissed. We were also able to overturn the previous loss at the DMV and reinstate her full license. ~~Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Michael T: was charged with a DUI MARIJUANA: RESULT: We filed a motion to suppress the blood result on a 4th Amendment violation of Michael's constitutional rights, we also did extensive discovery for the Gas Chromatograms on the blood test results. We finally got the DUI charges dismissed in exchange to a plea on a "dry reckless". ~~Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Marcus A. was charged with a .15 blood BAC after he had a 3 car accident on the freeway and after he was alleged by the other drivers to have been the cause of the collision. RESULT: We won the DMV because they could not prove the allegations under vehicle code 23152(b) as having the blood test performed within 3 hours of the time of driving. This saved his license and his job. ~~Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Elke C. was charged with a .25 BAC after she alleged drove her car off a small hill into a river bottom. RESULT: We won the DMV hearing and saved her license after we showed that the officer could not prove her blood test was completed within 3 hours of driving. ~~Results like these are obtainable with a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer from the best DUI law firm who can get through the DUI Facts and Drunk Driving myths about your DUI Defense. Jeffery B. was accused of a .27 BAC on a second time DUI resulting from a traffic accident and hit and run. He was also charged with a violation of probation for the 1st DUI. RESULT: The 2nd time DUI was dismissed based on the 6th Amendment and his probation on the 1st DUI was terminated. This was accomplished by his San Bernardino DUI Lawyer who knew the DUI facts and drunk driving myths. 1. Eric V. was charged with a .33 BAC on a 3rd time DUI. RESULT: We won the DMV hearing on a Title 17 violation and saved his license from a minimum suspension of 6 months. Joe B. was charged with a .29 BAC on a 1st time DUI. We filed and heard a motion to suppress under penal code 1538.5. RESULT: The judge ruled in our favor and dismissed the case. This only could have happen as a result of the hard work from his San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Hass E. was charged with a 2nd time DUI while he was still on probation for his first. The DA alleged that he had a .28 blood BAC, an accident at over 100 mph, and charged him with a VOP. Before trial the DA wanted Mr. E to do 120 of county jail, 90 days of a SCRAM braclet, and a $2000 fine. TRIAL: We started trial and after we excluded some evidence through the Motion in Limine process the DA re-evaluated their case. RESULT: DUI dismiss, Mr. E pled to a wet/reckless, NO jail time, NO scram, NO VOP, and a $800 fine. ~~This only could have happen as a result of the hard work from his San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Daniel S. was charge with a .20% BAC after he had a solo car crash. Based on my highly regarded skills as a San Bernardino DUI Lawyer I was able to get his case DISMISSED IN COURT AND I WON THE DMV HEARING. This was the result of skill and hard work and of course I found a 4th Amendment violation. Christopher B. was charged with a 3rd time DUI. His 2 priors were in another state. As his San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we filed a "Motion to Strike the Priors" asserting that the out of state dui's did not meet the California equivalency test. RESULT: His out of state of priors were stricken from the record, so instead of facing a 3rd time DUI in California, he is now only facing a 1st time DUI. This only could have happen as a result of the hard work from his San Bernardino DUI Lawyer Angelina T. was charged with a DUI with an alleged BAC of .17 after she had crashed into a police station. RESULT: We won the DMV hearing and saved her license. The court issues was resolved for a no-jail time plea. This only could have happen as a result of the hard work from his San Bernardino DUI Lawyer Samuel T. was charged with a DUI with an alleged .14 BAC after he was stopped for swerving while exiting the freeway. RESULT: We subpoenaed the dash cam video which helped up win the DMV hearing and we were able to get the entire court case dismissed based on an illegal stop. Again the results of his San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Joe M. was charged with a .079 PAS and a .06 blood BAC after he had a solo accident on the freeway. This was a 2nd time DUI. RESULT: The DUI charges were dismissed after he pled guilty to 2 traffic violations. Another win for the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Wesley C. was accused of a .19 BAC, having a loaded gun in the car and was pulled over for allegedly weaving. RESULT: His San Bernardino DUI Lawyers filed a 1538.5 motion to suppress. On the day of the hearing we got the DA to dismiss the DUI and gun charge in exchange to a plea of reckless driving under cvc 23103.5. One more win from the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Melissa W. was charged with a .23 BAC on a 2nd time DUI. As her San Bernardino DUI Lawyers we filed a motion challenging the officer's reason for the stop after he alleged she "straddled" the lanes. RESULT: Case Dismissed. Another happy client from the hard work of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer Joel D. was charged with a .18 blood BAC after he had a car accident on the freeway at 2:00 in the morning. Joel had poor field sobriety test and allegedly a strong odor of alcohol on his breath. RESULT: As his San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we won the DMV hearing and saved his license and his ability to get back and forth to work. We showed that the BAC result was ambiguous as to the date of testing and the date of reporting. San Bernardino DUI Lawyers saved his DMV drivers license. Dennis H: was charged with a .10 BAC after he allegedly failed the field sobriety tests and had a strong odor of alcohol on his breath. RESULT: ALL DUI charges dismissed. Dennis plead guilty to a moving traffic violation. We also overturned his loss at the DMV and got his license back. Only the experience from the best dui law firm and the best San Bernardino DUI Lawyers in could have achieved a dismissal like this and to overturn the DMV loss. Jacob Q: was charged with a DUI after he had a solo car crash. The police arrived and after investigation they arrested Jacob. RESULT: At the DMV hearing I was able to show that the police officer could NOT establish that Jacob drove a vehicle within 3 hours of the blood test. Thus, I saved his license, the increased cost of auto insurance, and the 10 year mark on his driving record. More work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Danielle M: was charged with a .18 blood BAC after she was stopped for weaving. After some considerable time and effort San Bernardino DUI Lawyers were able to plead it down to a wet/reckless under 23103.5 Diana L: was charged with a .10 blood BAC. During the discovery process her San Bernardino DUI Lawyers found out that the phlebotomist had done 2 blood draws at once and may have mixed up the vials during the labeling process. What was also odd was that our client blew a .06 at the station after the blood draw on a PAS breath unit. RESULT: case reduced to a dry reckless and the dui charges were dismissed. San Bernardino DUI Lawyers were also able to overturn the previous loss at the DMV and reinstate her full license. Michael T: was charged with a DUI MARIJUANA: RESULT: We filed a motion to suppress the blood result on a 4th Amendment violation of Michael's constitutional rights, we also did extensive discovery for the Gas Chromatograms on the blood test results. We finally got the DUI charges dismissed in exchange to a plea on a "dry reckless". More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Marcus A. was charged with a .15 blood BAC after he had a 3 car accident on the freeway and after he was alleged by the other drivers to have been the cause of the collision. RESULT: We won the DMV because they could not prove the allegations under vehicle code 23152(b) as having the blood test performed within 3 hours of the time of driving. This saved his license and his job. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Elke C. was charged with a .25 BAC after she alleged drove her car off a small hill into a river bottom. RESULT: We won the DMV hearing and saved her license after we showed that the officer could not prove her blood test was completed within 3 hours of driving. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Moises K. was charged with a .10 BAC after he allegedly REFUSED to give a breath sample. The DMV instituted actions to suspend his license for 1 year. RESULT: At the hearing we proved that he did not refuse and we saved him his license and his job. At the hearing we showed that the FST were not done correctly by the officer and put on our own proof as to our client's medical issues. COURT RESULT: All DUI charges were dismissed in exchange for a plea to a dry-reckless. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Mauricio C. was charged with a .12 BAC after a person called 911 to report that the thought he was DUI. We did a motion to suppress under penal code 1538.5 challenging the officer's reason for the stop under the case law of People v. Wells. RESULT: DUI charges dismissed, client plead to guilty to a 23103.5, and we are currently appealing the denial of the motion to suppress. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Eric H. was accused of refusing to take a blood test, several officers had to tie him down in order to draw blood, a .18 BAC. RESULT: We won the DMV Refusal hearing which saved him a year of suspension and got him no jail time on his court case. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Tricia J. was accused of a .13 BAC. At the DMV Hearing we challenged the validity of the probable cause. RESULT: We won the DMV hearing and saved her license. David R. was accused of a .12 BAC. At the DMV Hearing we challenged the lawfulness of the arrest. RESULT: We won the DMV Hearing and saved his license. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Arnel B. Was charge with DUI after the police stopped him for allegedly speeding. We filed a motion to suppress under PC 1538.5 challenging the officer's alleged reason for the stop was not satisfied by the use of his LIDAR Gun. RESULT: Both DUI charges dismissed,client pled to a speeding infraction and no turn signal infraction. Both were no point counts with the DMV. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Amalik A. was charged with a 2nd time DUI while he was still on probation for the 1st offense. He had an auto accident, a BAC of .17, and a high level of Marijuana in his system. RESULT: All DUI counts dismissed, he pled to a reckless driving under cvc 23103. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Bart D. was charged with a DUI after having a BAC of .20. It was alleged that Bart had been swerving and almost hitting a police officer head on, running into the curb, and vomited all over himself. We filed a 6th Amendment motion challenging the violation of his rights to a speedy trial. RESULT: After hearing the motion in open court the case was Dismissed. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Marvin M. was charged with a Drug DUI, allegedly being under the influence of 4 types of pain medication after he was observed swerving across several lanes of travel. RESULT: DUI dismiss/reduced to 2 driving infractions. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Cyerra R. was charged with a DUI as a minor since she was only 18 years old. Her BAC was alledged to be a .14. RESULT: We won the DMV hearing and saved her license from 12 months of suspension. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Eric S. was charged with DUI after having a .10 BAC. It was alledged that he was speeding, doing 65mph in a 35 mph zone, that he made a wide right turn almost hitting a curb, almost lost control, and did not respond the the officer's loud speaker to pull over. RESULT: WE TOOK THIS TO TRIAL AND GOT 12 PEOPLE TO VOTE NOT GUILTY ON BOTH COUNTS. Richard P. was charged with a DUI after having a BAC of .13 and a PAS machine reading of .14. RESULT: Richard pled to a wet-reckless under cvc 23103.5, this was achieved after an extensive cross examination of the officer at the DMV hearing in which he admitted that Richard did not show any signs of mental or physical impairment. Richard elected to take this plea instead of proceeding to a jury trial. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Romney N. : was accused of a DUI with a blood alcohol of .22. We fought the case on the officer's inability to prove that he had been driving within 3 hours of his blood test. RESULT: We beat the DMV hearing and saved his license. Monica S. : was accused of a DUI with a blood alcohol of .20. The issue in her case was that she was not the driver. RESULT: After the conclusions of 3 DMV hearings in which we crossed examined the officer and we presented our own independent witness, we Won the DMV hearing and saved her license. Daniel R. was charged with a DUI with an alleged BAC of .10. The issue in his case was they could not prove his driving was within 3 hours of his blood test. RESULT: based on the facts the DUI was dismissed and he pled to a misdemeanor vandalism. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Ricardo F. was charged with a 2nd DUI and an alleged BAC of .15. We challenged the stop with a 1538.5 motion to suppress. At the hearing we showed that the officer had lied in contrast to what he previously told the DDA. RESULT: case reduced to a reckless driving cvc 23103.5 Deborah P. was charged with a DUI and a high BAC of .23 allegedly picking up her children from school drunk. RESULT: No jail time. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Nicholas P. was 18 years old and charged with an alleged .07 BAC on a first time DUI. He was stopped for allegedly doing 90 mph on the freeway. As an underage driver his legal limit was zero tolerance, a .01. RESULT: Case dismissed after he pled to a DRY reckless. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. Mario R. was charged with a DUI with an allegation that he had Marijuana in his system. RESULT: Case Dismissed after he pled to 2 traffic violations. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Bobby A. was charged with a DUI and a BAC of .07 after the officer allegedly followed Bobby out of a bar in Fontana. RESULT: DUI dismissed reduced to running a stop sign. ROSALIO R. was charged with a DUI and a BAC of .07. RESULT: Case dismissed. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Ray R. was charged with a .07 DUI as a minor. We proceeded to court and the matter was heard as a bench trial. RESULT: Client acquitted of all charges. David M. was charged with a DUI. RESULT: Case reduced to reckless driving under cvc 23103.5 Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Gary A. was charged with a 2nd time DUI and an alleged BAC of .11. It was alleged that he did not immediately stop for the officers and he had very poor Field Sobriety Test. We took the case to trial. RESULT: After nearly 3 days of jury deliberations they were deadlocked. However, they ultimately convicted my client. The good news is that he only had to do 4 days of community service in contract to the 40 days of jail time the DDA wanted prior to trial. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. Hailey L. was charge with a DUI with an allegation that she was a .14 BAC. The problem was that she was a minor and her legal limit is .01. We filed a 1538.5 motion to suppress because under the community caretaker exception to 4th Amendment could not be satisfied by the officer under the controlling case of People v. Madrid. RESULT: The prosecution stipulated to a finding of NOT GUILTY on the 23152(b) count and 23136(a) count, dismiss 23152(a), that her blood was not over .01, and she pled to 23103.5. This allowed us to send a certified copy of the docket up to mandatory action in Sacramento and have her 1 year suspension lifted from her driver's license. David M. : DUI RESULT: Reduced to wet/reckless. Again , through the dedication of the San Bernardino DUI Lawyer we were successful on this dui case. J. Castro. was charged with a .08, alleged to have been weaving. RESULT: Dismissed. More fine work from San Bernardino DUI Lawyer. * This is not a guarantee or indication of the outcome to your case.

VEHICLE CODE SECTION 12500-12527 12500. (a) A person may not drive a motor vehicle upon a highway, unless the person then holds a valid driver's license issued under this code, except those persons who are expressly exempted under this code. (b) A person may not drive a motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, or motorized bicycle upon a highway, unless the person then holds a valid driver's license or endorsement issued under this code for that class, except those persons who are expressly exempted under this code, or those persons specifically authorized to operate motorized bicycles or motorized scooters with a valid driver's license of any class, as specified in subdivision (h) of Section 12804.9. (c) A person may not drive a motor vehicle in or upon any offstreet parking facility, unless the person then holds a valid driver's license of the appropriate class or certification to operate the vehicle. As used in this subdivision, "offstreet parking facility" means any offstreet facility held open for use by the public for parking vehicles and includes any publicly owned facilities for offstreet parking, and privately owned facilities for offstreet parking where no fee is charged for the privilege to park and which are held open for the common public use of retail customers. (d) A person may not drive a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles that is not of a type for which the person is licensed. (e) A motorized scooter operated on public streets shall at all times be equipped with an engine that complies with the applicable State Air Resources Board emission requirements. 12501. The following persons are not required to obtain a driver's license: (a) An officer or employee of the United States, while operating a motor vehicle owned or controlled by the United States on the business of the United States, except when the motor vehicle being operated is a commercial motor vehicle, as defined in Section 15210. (b) Any person while driving or operating implements of husbandry incidentally operated or moved over a highway, except as provided in Section 36300 or 36305. (c) Any person driving or operating an off-highway motor vehicle subject to identification, as defined in Section 38012, while driving or operating such motor vehicle as provided in Section 38025. Nothing in this subdivision authorizes operation of a motor vehicle by a person without a valid driver's license upon any offstreet parking facility, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 12500. 12502. (a) The following persons may operate a motor vehicle in this state without obtaining a driver's license under this code: (1) A nonresident over the age of 18 years having in his or her immediate possession a valid driver's license issued by a foreign jurisdiction of which he or she is a resident, except as provided in Section 12505. (2) A nonresident, 21 years of age or older, if transporting hazardous material, as defined in Section 353, in a commercial vehicle, having in his or her immediate possession, a valid license with the appropriate endorsement issued by another state or other jurisdiction that is recognized by the department, or a Canadian driver's license and a copy of his or her current training certificate to transport hazardous material that complies with all federal laws and regulations with respect to hazardous materials, both of which shall be in his or her immediate possession. (3) A nonresident having in his or her immediate possession a valid driver's license, issued by the Diplomatic Motor Vehicle Office of the Office of Foreign Missions of the United States Department of State, for the type of motor vehicle or combination of vehicles that the person is operating. (b) (1) A driver required to have a commercial driver's license under Part 383 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations who submits a current medical examiner's certificate to the licensing state in accordance with Section 383.71(h) of Subpart E of Part 383 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, documenting that he or she meets the physical qualification requirements of Section 391.41 of Subpart E of Part 391 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, is not required to carry on his or her person the medical examiner's certificate or a copy of that certificate. (2) A driver may use the date-stamped receipt, given to the driver by the licensing state agency, for up to 15 days after the date stamped on the receipt, as proof of medical certification. (c) A nonresident possessing a medical certificate in accordance with subdivision (b) shall comply with any restriction of the medical certificate issued to that nonresident. (d) This section shall become operative on January 31, 2014. 12503. A nonresident over the age of 18 years whose home state or country does not require the licensing of drivers may operate a foreign vehicle owned by him for not to exceed 30 days without obtaining a license under this code. 12504. (a) Sections 12502 and 12503 apply to any nonresident over the age of 16 years but under the age of 18 years. The maximum period during which that nonresident may operate a motor vehicle in this state without obtaining a driver's license is limited to a period of 10 days immediately following the entry of the nonresident into this state except as provided in subdivision (b) of this section. (b) Any nonresident over the age of 16 years but under the age of 18 years who is a resident of a foreign jurisdiction which requires the licensing of drivers may continue to operate a motor vehicle in this state after 10 days from his or her date of entry into this state if he or she meets both the following: (1) He or she has a valid driver's license, issued by the foreign jurisdiction, in his or her immediate possession. (2) He or she has been issued and has in his or her immediate possession a nonresident minor's certificate, which the department issues to a nonresident minor who holds a valid driver's license issued to him or her by his or her home state or country, and who files proof of financial responsibility. (c) Whenever any of the conditions for the issuance of a nonresident minor's certificate cease to exist, the department shall cancel the certificate and require the minor to surrender it to the department. 12505. (a) (1) For purposes of this division only and notwithstanding Section 516, residency shall be determined as a person's state of domicile. "State of domicile" means the state where a person has his or her true, fixed, and permanent home and principal residence and to which he or she has manifested the intention of returning whenever he or she is absent. Prima facie evidence of residency for driver's licensing purposes includes, but is not limited to, the following: (A) Address where registered to vote. (B) Payment of resident tuition at a public institution of higher education. (C) Filing a homeowner's property tax exemption. (D) Other acts, occurrences, or events that indicate presence in the state is more than temporary or transient. (2) California residency is required of a person in order to be issued a commercial driver's license under this code. (b) The presumption of residency in this state may be rebutted by satisfactory evidence that the licensee's primary residence is in another state. (c) Any person entitled to an exemption under Section 12502, 12503, or 12504 may operate a motor vehicle in this state for not to exceed 10 days from the date he or she establishes residence in this state, except that a person shall not operate a motor vehicle for employment in this state after establishing residency without first obtaining a license from the department. (d) If the State of California is decertified by the federal government and prohibited from issuing an initial, renewal, or upgraded commercial driver's license pursuant to Section 384.405 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the following applies: (1) An existing commercial driver's license issued pursuant to this code prior to the date that the state is notified of its decertification shall remain valid until its expiration date. (2) A person who is a resident of this state may obtain a nondomiciled commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license from any state that elects to issue a nondomiciled commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license and that complies with the testing and licensing standards contained in subparts F, G, and H of Part 383 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. (3) For the purposes of this subdivision, a nondomiciled commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license is a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license issued by a state to an individual domiciled in a foreign country or in another state. (e) The department may issue a nondomiciled commercial learner's permit or nondomiciled commercial driver's license to a person who is domiciled in a state or jurisdiction that has been decertified by the federal government or not determined to be in compliance with the testing and licensing standards contained in subparts F, G, and H of Part 383 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. (f) Subject to Section 12504, a person over the age of 16 years who is a resident of a foreign jurisdiction other than a state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or Canada, having a valid driver's license issued to him or her by any other foreign jurisdiction may operate a motor vehicle in this state without obtaining a license from the department, unless the department determines that the foreign jurisdiction does not meet the licensing standards imposed by this code. (g) A person who is 18 years of age or older and in possession of a valid commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license issued by any state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a foreign jurisdiction that meets the licensing standards contained in subparts F, G, and H of Part 383 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations shall be granted reciprocity to operate vehicles of the appropriate class on the highways of this state. (h) Any person from a foreign jurisdiction that does not meet the licensing standards contained in subparts F, G, and H of Part 383 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations shall obtain a commercial learner's permit or commercial driver's license from the department before operating on the highways a motor vehicle for which a commercial driver's license is required, as described in Section 12804.9. The medical examination form required for issuance of a commercial driver's license shall be completed by a health care professional, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 12804.9, who is licensed, certified, or registered to perform physical examinations in the United States of America. This subdivision does not apply to (1) drivers of schoolbuses operated in California on a trip for educational purposes or (2) drivers of vehicles used to provide the services of a local public agency. (i) This section does not authorize the employment of a person in violation of Section 12515. 12506. The department may issue a temporary driver's license to any person applying for a driver's license, to any person applying for renewal of a driver's license, or to any licensee whose license is required to be changed, added to, or modified. Notwithstanding subdivision (b) of Section 12805, the department may issue a temporary driver's license to an applicant who has previously been licensed in this state or in any other state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or the Dominion of Canada, notwithstanding that the applicant has failed the written examination on the person's first attempt. A temporary license permits the operation of a motor vehicle upon the highways for a period of 60 days, if the licensee has the temporary license in his or her immediate possession, and while the department is completing its investigation and determination of all facts relative to the applicant's right to receive a license. The temporary license is invalid when the applicant's license has been issued or refused. 12508. When in the opinion of the department it would be in the interest of safety, the department may issue, in individual cases, to any applicant for a driver's license, a license limited in duration to less than the regular term. Upon the expiration of a limited term license the department may extend its duration for an additional period without fee but the duration of the license and extensions shall not exceed the term of a regular license. 12509. (a) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (f) of Section 12514, the department, for good cause, may issue an instruction permit to a physically and mentally qualified person who meets one of the following requirements and who applies to the department for an instruction permit: (1) Is 15 years and 6 months of age or older, and has successfully completed approved courses in automobile driver education and driver training as provided in paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 12814.6. (2) Is 15 years and 6 months of age or older, and has successfully completed an approved course in automobile driver education and is taking driver training as provided in paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 12814.6. (3) Is 15 years and 6 months of age and enrolled and participating in an integrated automobile driver education and training program as provided in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 12814.6. (4) Is over 16 years of age and is applying for a restricted driver's license pursuant to Section 12814.7. (5) Is over 17 years and 6 months of age. (b) The applicant shall qualify for, and be issued, an instruction permit within 12 months from the date of the application. (c) An instruction permit issued pursuant to subdivision (a) shall entitle the applicant to operate a vehicle, subject to the limitations imposed by this section and any other provisions of law, upon the highways for a period not exceeding 24 months from the date of the application. (d) Except as provided in Section 12814.6, a person, while having in his or her immediate possession a valid permit issued pursuant to paragraphs (1) to (3), inclusive, of subdivision (a), may operate a motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, motorized scooter, or a motorized bicycle, when accompanied by, and under the immediate supervision of, a California-licensed driver with a valid license of the appropriate class who is 18 years of age or over and whose driving privilege is not subject to probation. An accompanying licensed driver at all times shall occupy a position within the driver's compartment that would enable the accompanying licensed driver to assist the person in controlling the vehicle as may be necessary to avoid a collision and to provide immediate guidance in the safe operation of the vehicle. (e) A person, while having in his or her immediate possession a valid permit issued pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (a), may only operate a government-owned motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, motorized scooter, or a motorized bicycle, when taking driver training instruction administered by the California National Guard. (f) The department may also issue an instruction permit to a person who has been issued a valid driver's license to authorize the person to obtain driver training instruction and to practice that instruction in order to obtain another class of driver's license or an endorsement. (g) The department may further restrict permits issued under subdivision (a) as it may determine to be appropriate to ensure the safe operation of a motor vehicle by the permittee. 12509.5. (a) A person shall obtain an instruction permit issued pursuant to this section prior to operating, or being issued a class M1 or M2 driver's license to operate, a two-wheel motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, motorized scooter, motorized bicycle, moped, or bicycle with an attached motor. The person shall meet the following requirements to obtain an instruction permit for purposes of this section: (1) If age 15 years and 6 months or older, but under the age of 18 years, the applicant shall meet all of the following requirements: (A) Have a valid class C license or complete driver education and training pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 12814.6. (B) Successfully complete a motorcyclist safety program that is operated pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 2930) of Chapter 5 of Division 2. (C) Pass the motorcycle driver's written exam. (2) If 18 years of age or older, but under 21 years of age, the applicant shall meet both of the following requirements: (A) Successfully complete a motorcyclist safety program that is operated pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 2930) of Chapter 5 of Division 2. (B) Pass the motorcycle driver's written exam. (3) If 21 years of age or older, pass the motorcycle driver's written exam. (b) A person described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (a) shall hold an instruction permit issued pursuant to this section for a minimum of six months prior to being issued a class M1 or M2 license. (c) A person issued an instruction permit pursuant to this section shall not operate a two-wheel motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, motorized scooter, motorized bicycle, moped, or bicycle with an attached motor during the hours of darkness, shall stay off any freeways that have full control of access and have no crossings at grade, and shall not carry any passenger except an instructor licensed under Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 11100) of Division 5 or a qualified instructor as defined in Section 41907 of the Education Code. (d) An instruction permit issued pursuant to this section shall be valid for a period not exceeding 24 months from the date of application. (e) The department may perform, during regularly scheduled computer system maintenance and upgrades, any necessary software updates related to the changes made by the addition, during the 2009-2010 Regular Session, of this section. 12511. No person shall have in his or her possession or otherwise under his or her control more than one driver's license. 12512. Except as provided in Sections 12513, 12514, and 12814.6, no license to drive shall be issued to a person under the age of 18 years. 12513. (a) Upon application, successful completion of tests and compliance with Sections 17700 to 17705, inclusive, the department may issue a junior permit to any person 14 years of age, but less than 18, who establishes eligibility as required by this section. A person is eligible when, in the opinion of the department, any one or more of the following circumstances exist: School or other transportation facilities are inadequate for regular attendance at school and at activities authorized by the school. The application for a junior permit shall be accompanied by a signed statement from the school principal verifying such facts. A junior permit issued under this subsection shall be restricted to operating a vehicle from residence to the school and return. Reasonable transportation facilities are inadequate and operation of a vehicle by a minor is necessary due to illness of a family member. The application shall be accompanied by a signed statement from a physician familiar with the condition, containing a diagnosis and probable date when sufficient recovery will have been made to terminate the emergency. Transportation facilities are inadequate, and use of a motor vehicle is necessary in the transportation to and from the employment of the applicant and the applicant's income from such employment is essential in the support of the family, or where the applicant's operation of a motor vehicle is essential to an enterprise from which an appreciable portion of the income of the family will be derived. The application shall be accompanied by a signed statement from the parents or the guardian, setting forth the reasons a permit is necessary under this subsection. (b) The existence of public transportation at reasonable intervals within one mile of the residence of the applicant may be considered adequate grounds for refusal of a junior permit. (c) The department shall impose restrictions upon junior permits appropriate to the conditions and area under which they are intended to be used. 12514. (a) Junior permits issued pursuant to Section 12513 shall not be valid for a period exceeding that established on the original request as the approximate date the minor's operation of a vehicle will no longer be necessary. In any event, no permit shall be valid on or after the 18th birthday of the applicant. (b) The department may revoke any permit when to do so is necessary for the welfare of the minor or in the interests of safety. (c) If conditions or location of residence, which required the minor's operation of a vehicle, change prior to expiration of the permit, the department may cancel the permit. (d) Upon a determination that the permittee has operated a vehicle in violation of restrictions, the department shall revoke the permit. (e) A junior permit is a form of driver's license that shall include all information required by subdivision (a) of Section 12811 except for an engraved picture or photograph of the permittee, and is subject to all provisions of this code applying to driver's licenses, except as otherwise provided in this section and Section 12513. (f) An instruction permit valid for a period of not more than six months may be issued after eligibility has been established under Section 12513. (g) The department shall cancel any permit six months from the date of issuance unless the permittee has complied with one of the conditions prescribed by paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 12814.6. 12515. (a) No person under the age of 18 years shall be employed for compensation by another for the purpose of driving a motor vehicle on the highways. (b) No person under the age of 21 years shall be employed for compensation by another to drive, and no person under the age of 21 years may drive a motor vehicle, as defined in Section 34500 or subdivision (b) of Section 15210, that is engaged in interstate commerce, or any motor vehicle that is engaged in the interstate or intrastate transportation of hazardous material, as defined in Section 353. 12516. It is unlawful for any person under the age of 18 years to drive a school bus transporting pupils to or from school. 12517. (a) (1) A person may not operate a schoolbus while transporting pupils unless that person has in his or her immediate possession a valid driver's license for the appropriate class of vehicle to be driven endorsed for schoolbus and passenger transportation. (2) When transporting one or more pupils at or below the 12th-grade level to or from a public or private school or to or from public or private school activities, the person described in paragraph (1) shall have in his or her immediate possession a certificate issued by the department to permit the operation of a schoolbus. (b) A person may not operate a school pupil activity bus unless that person has in his or her immediate possession a valid driver's license for the appropriate class of vehicle to be driven endorsed for passenger transportation. When transporting one or more pupils at or below the 12th-grade level to or from public or private school activities, the person shall also have in his or her immediate possession a certificate issued by the department to permit the operation of school pupil activity buses. (c) The applicant for a certificate to operate a schoolbus or school pupil activity bus shall meet the eligibility and training requirements specified for schoolbus and school pupil activity busdrivers in this code, the Education Code, and regulations adopted by the Department of the California Highway Patrol, and, in addition to the fee authorized in Section 2427, shall pay a fee of twenty-five dollars ($25) with the application for issuance of an original certificate, and a fee of twelve dollars ($12) for the renewal of that certificate. 12517.1. (a) A "schoolbus accident" means any of the following: (1) A motor vehicle accident resulting in property damage in excess of seven hundred fifty dollars ($750) or personal injury, on public or private property, and involving a schoolbus, youth bus, school pupil activity bus, or general public paratransit vehicle transporting a pupil. (2) A collision between a vehicle and a pupil or a schoolbus driver while the pupil or driver is crossing the highway when the schoolbus flashing red signal lamps are required to be operated pursuant to Section 22112 or when the schoolbus is stopped for the purpose of loading or unloading pupils. (3) Injury of a pupil inside a vehicle described in paragraph (1) as a result of acceleration, deceleration, or other movement of the vehicle. (b) The Department of the California Highway Patrol shall investigate all schoolbus accidents, except that accidents involving only property damage and occurring entirely on private property shall be investigated only if they involve a violation of this code. 12517.2. (a) Applicants for an original or renewal certificate to drive a schoolbus, school pupil activity bus, youth bus, general public paratransit vehicle, or farm labor vehicle shall submit a report of a medical examination of the applicant given not more than two years prior to the date of the application by a physician licensed to practice medicine, a licensed advanced practice registered nurse qualified to perform a medical examination, a licensed physician assistant, or a licensed doctor of chiropractic listed on the most current National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners, as adopted by the United States Department of Transportation, as published by the notice in the Federal Register, Volume 77, Number 77, Friday, April 20, 2012, on pages 24104 to 24135, inclusive, and pursuant to Section 391.42 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The report shall be on a form approved by the department. (b) Schoolbus drivers, within the same month of reaching 65 years of age and each 12th month thereafter, shall undergo a medical examination, pursuant to Section 12804.9, and shall submit a report of that medical examination on a form as specified in subdivision (a). 12517.3. (a) (1) An applicant for an original certificate to drive a schoolbus, school pupil activity bus, youth bus, or general public paratransit vehicle shall be fingerprinted by the Department of the California Highway Patrol, on a form provided or approved by the Department of the California Highway Patrol for submission to the Department of Justice, utilizing the Applicant Expedite Service or an electronic fingerprinting system. (2) An applicant fingerprint form shall be processed and returned to the office of the Department of the California Highway Patrol from which it originated not later than 15 working days from the date on which the fingerprint form was received by the Department of Justice, unless circumstances, other than the administrative duties of the Department of Justice, warrant further investigation. (3) Applicant fingerprints that are submitted by utilizing an electronic fingerprinting system shall be processed and returned to the appropriate office of the Department of the California Highway Patrol within three working days. (4) The commissioner may utilize the California Law Enforcement Telecommunications System to conduct a preliminary criminal and driver history check to determine an applicant's eligibility to hold an original or renewal certificate to drive a schoolbus, school pupil activity bus, youth bus, or general public paratransit vehicle. (b) (1) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), an applicant for an original certificate to drive a schoolbus, school pupil activity bus, youth bus, or general public paratransit vehicle may be fingerprinted by a public law enforcement agency, a school district, or a county office of education utilizing an electronic fingerprinting system with terminals managed by the Department of Justice. (2) The Department of Justice shall provide the fingerprint information processed pursuant to this subdivision to the appropriate office of the Department of the California Highway Patrol within three working days of receipt of the information. (3) An applicant for an original certificate to drive an ambulance shall submit a completed fingerprint card to the department. 12517.4. This section governs the issuance of a certificate to drive a schoolbus, school pupil activity bus, youth bus, general public paratransit vehicle, or farm labor vehicle. (a) The driver certificate shall be issued only to applicants meeting all applicable provisions of this code and passing the examinations prescribed by the department and the Department of the California Highway Patrol. The examinations shall be conducted by the Department of the California Highway Patrol, pursuant to Sections 12517, 12519, 12522, 12523, and 12523.5. (b) A temporary driver certificate shall be issued by the Department of the California Highway Patrol after an applicant has cleared a criminal history background check by the Department of Justice and, if applicable, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and has passed the examinations and meets all other applicable provisions of this code. (c) A permanent driver's certificate shall be issued by the department after an applicant has passed all tests and met all applicable provisions of this code. Certificates are valid for a maximum of five years and shall expire on the fifth birthday following the issuance of an original certificate or the expiration of the certificate renewed. (d) A holder of a certificate may not violate any restriction placed on the certificate. Depending upon the type of vehicle used in the driving test and the abilities and physical condition of the applicant, the Department of the California Highway Patrol and the department may place restrictions on a certificate to assure the safe operation of a motor vehicle and safe transportation of passengers. These restrictions may include, but are not limited to, all of the following: (1) Automatic transmission only. (2) Hydraulic brakes only. (3) Type 2 bus only. (4) Conventional or type 2 bus only. (5) Two-axle motor truck or passenger vehicle only. (e) A holder of a certificate may not drive a motor vehicle equipped with a two-speed rear axle unless the certificate is endorsed: "May drive vehicle with two-speed rear axle." (f) This section shall become operative on September 20, 2005. 12517.45. (a) A person shall not operate a motor vehicle described in subdivision (k) of Section 545 while transporting school pupils at or below the 12th-grade level to or from a public or private school or to or from public or private school activities, unless all of the following requirements are met: (1) The person has in his or her immediate possession all of the following: (A) A valid driver's license of a class appropriate to the vehicle driven and that is endorsed for passenger transportation. (B) Either a certificate to drive a schoolbus as described in Section 40082 of the Education Code, or a certificate to drive a school pupil activity bus as described in Section 40083 of the Education Code, issued by the department in accordance with eligibility and training requirements specified by the department, the State Department of Education, and the Department of the California Highway Patrol. (C) A parental authorization form for each pupil signed by a parent or a legal guardian of the pupil that gives permission for that pupil to be transported to or from the school or school-related activity. (2) (A) The motor vehicle has passed an annual inspection conducted by the Department of the California Highway Patrol and is in compliance with the charter-party carrier's responsibilities under Section 5374 of the Public Utilities Code. (B) The Department of the California Highway Patrol may charge a charter-party carrier a reasonable fee sufficient to cover the costs incurred by the Department of the California Highway Patrol in conducting the annual inspection of a motor vehicle. (b) A driver of a motor vehicle described in subdivision (k) of Section 545 shall comply with the duties specified in subdivision (a) of Section 5384.1 of the Public Utilities Code. 12517.5. A person who is employed as a driver of a paratransit vehicle shall not operate that vehicle unless the person meets both of the following requirements: (a) Has in his or her immediate possession a valid driver's license of a class appropriate to the vehicle driven. (b) Successfully completes, during each calendar year, four hours of training administered by, or at the direction of, his or her employer or the employer's agent on the safe operation of paratransit vehicles and four hours of training on the special transportation needs of the persons he or she is employed to transport. This subdivision may be satisfied if the driver receives transportation training or a certificate, or both, pursuant to Section 40082, 40083, 40085, 40085.5, or 40088 of the Education Code. The employer shall maintain a record of the current training received by each driver in his or her employ and shall present that record on demand to any authorized representative of the Department of the California Highway Patrol. 12518. The provisions of Section 12504 shall apply to any nonresident who is under the age of 18 years and who is a member of the armed forces of the United States on active duty within this state, except that the maximum period during which such nonresident may operate a motor vehicle in this state without obtaining a driver' s license or a nonresident minor's certificate shall be limited to a period of 60 days immediately following the entry of such nonresident into this state. 12519. (a) No person shall operate a farm labor vehicle unless the person has in his or her possession a driver's license for the appropriate class of vehicle to be driven, endorsed for passenger transportation, and, when transporting one or more farmworker passengers, a certificate issued by the department to permit the operation of farm labor vehicles. (b) The applicants shall present evidence that they have successfully completed the driver training course developed by the Department of Education pursuant to Section 40081 of the Education Code, and approved by the Department of Motor Vehicles and the Department of the California Highway Patrol before a permanent certificate will be issued. (c) The certificate shall be issued only to applicants qualified by examinations prescribed by the Department of Motor Vehicles and the Department of the California Highway Patrol and upon payment of a fee of twelve dollars ($12) to the Department of the California Highway Patrol.The examinations shall be conducted by the Department of the California Highway Patrol. (d) A person holding a valid certificate to permit the operation of a farm labor vehicle, issued prior to January 1, 1991, shall not be required to reapply for a certificate to satisfy any additional requirements imposed by the act adding this subdivision until the certificate he or she holds expires or is canceled or revoked. 12520. (a) No person employed as a tow truck driver, as defined in Section 2430.1, shall operate a tow truck unless that person has, in his or her immediate possession, a valid California driver's license of an appropriate class for the vehicle to be driven, and a tow truck driver certificate issued by the department or a temporary tow truck driver certificate issued by the Department of the California Highway Patrol, to permit the operation of the tow truck. (b) When notified that the applicant has been cleared through the Department of Justice or the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or both, and if the applicant meets all other applicable provisions of this code, the department shall issue a permanent tow truck driver certificate. The permanent tow truck driver certificate shall be valid for a maximum of five years and shall expire on the same date as that of the applicant's driver's license. 12521. An operator of a tour bus shall, at all times when operating the tour bus, do all the following: (a) Use a safety belt. (b) Report any accidents involving the tour bus to the Department of the California Highway Patrol. 12522. (a) Every person who operates a schoolbus or youth bus in the transportation of school pupils shall, in addition to any other requirement for a schoolbus or youth bus driver's certificate, qualify by an examination on first aid practices deemed necessary for schoolbus operators or youth bus operators. Standards for examination shall be determined by the Emergency Medical Services Authority after consultation with the State Department of Education, the Department of Motor Vehicles, and the Department of the California Highway Patrol. The local school authority employing the applicant shall provide a course of instruction concerning necessary first aid practices. (b) The Department of the California Highway Patrol shall conduct the first aid examination as part of the examination of applicants for a schoolbus or youth bus driver's certificate and shall certify to the Department of Motor Vehicles that the applicant has satisfactorily demonstrated his or her qualifications in first aid practices, knowledge of schoolbus or youth bus laws and regulations, and ability to operate a schoolbus or youth bus. The first aid certifications shall be valid for the term of the schoolbus or youth bus driver's certificate. (c) The first aid examination may be waived if the applicant possesses either of the following minimum qualifications: (1) A current first aid certificate issued by the American Red Cross or by an organization whose first aid training program is at least equivalent to the American Red Cross first aid training program, as determined by the Emergency Medical Services Authority. The Emergency Medical Services Authority may charge a fee, sufficient to cover its administrative costs of approval, to an organization that applies to have its first aid training program approved for purposes of this paragraph. (2) A current license as a physician and surgeon, osteopathic physician and surgeon, or registered nurse, or a current certificate as a physician's assistant or emergency medical technician. The first aid certificate or license shall be maintained throughout the term of the schoolbus or youth bus driver's certificate and shall be presented upon demand of any traffic officer. The schoolbus or youth bus driver's certificate shall not be valid during any time that the driver fails to maintain and possess that license or certificate after the first aid examination has been waived. 12523. (a) No person shall operate a youth bus without having in possession a valid driver's license of the appropriate class, endorsed for passenger transportation and a certificate issued by the department to permit the operation of a youth bus. (b) Applicants for a certificate to drive a youth bus shall present evidence that they have successfully completed a driver training course administered by or at the direction of their employer consisting of a minimum of 10 hours of classroom instruction covering applicable laws and regulations and defensive driving practices and a minimum of 10 hours of behind-the-wheel training in a vehicle to be used as a youth bus. Applicants seeking to renew a certificate to drive a youth bus shall present evidence that they have received two hours of refresher training during each 12 months of driver certificate validity. (c) The driver certificate shall be issued only to applicants qualified by examinations prescribed by the Department of Motor Vehicles and the Department of the California Highway Patrol, and upon payment of a fee of twenty-five dollars ($25) for an original certificate and twelve dollars ($12) for the renewal of that certificate to the Department of the California Highway Patrol. The examinations shall be conducted by the Department of the California Highway Patrol. The Department of Motor Vehicles may deny, suspend, or revoke a certificate valid for driving a youth bus for the causes specified in this code or in regulations adopted pursuant to this code. (d) An operator of a youth bus shall, at all times when operating a youth bus, do all of the following: (1) Use seat belts. (2) Refrain from smoking. (3) Report any accidents reportable under Section 16000 to the Department of the California Highway Patrol. (e) A person holding a valid certificate to permit the operation of a youth bus, issued prior to January 1, 1991, shall not be required to reapply for a certificate to satisfy any additional requirements imposed by the act adding this subdivision until the certificate he or she holds expires or is canceled or revoked. 12523.5. (a) No person shall operate a general public paratransit vehicle unless he or she has in his or her possession a valid driver' s license of the appropriate class endorsed for passenger transportation when operating a vehicle designed, used, or maintained for carrying more than 10 persons including the driver and either (1) a certificate issued by the department to permit the operation of a general public paratransit vehicle, or (2) a certificate issued by the department to drive a schoolbus or school pupil activity bus pursuant to Section 12517. (b) Applicants for a certificate to drive a general public paratransit vehicle shall pay a fee to the Department of the California Highway Patrol of twenty-five dollars ($25) for an original certificate and twelve dollars ($12) for a renewal certificate. Applicants for an original certificate shall present evidence that they have successfully completed a driver training course consisting of a minimum of 40 hours of instruction within the previous two years. The instruction shall have covered applicable laws and regulations and defensive driving practices, a minimum of eight hours of certified defensive driving, and a minimum of 20 hours of behind-the-wheel training in a vehicle to be used as a general public paratransit vehicle. Applicants seeking to renew a certificate valid for driving a general public paratransit vehicle shall present evidence that they have received two hours of refresher training during each 12 months of driver certificate validity. (c) The driver certificate shall be issued only to applicants qualified by examinations prescribed by the Department of Motor Vehicles and the Department of the California Highway Patrol. The examinations shall be conducted by the Department of the California Highway Patrol. The Department of Motor Vehicles may deny, suspend, or revoke a certificate valid for driving a general public paratransit vehicle for the causes specified in this code or the Education Code or in regulations adopted pursuant to this code or the Education Code. (d) An operator of a general public paratransit vehicle shall do all of the following: (1) Use seatbelts. (2) Refrain from smoking. (3) Report any accident reportable under Section 16000 to the Department of the California Highway Patrol. (e) A person holding a valid certificate to permit the operation of a general public paratransit vehicle, issued prior to January 1, 1991, shall not be required to reapply for a certificate to satisfy any additional requirements imposed by the act adding this subdivision until the certificate he or she holds expires or is canceled or revoked. 12523.6. (a) (1) On and after March 1, 1998, no person who is employed primarily as a driver of a motor vehicle that is used for the transportation of persons with developmental disabilities, as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 4512 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, shall operate that motor vehicle unless that person has in his or her possession a valid driver's license of the appropriate class and a valid special driver certificate issued by the department. (2) This subdivision only applies to a person who is employed by a business, a nonprofit organization, or a state or local public agency. (b) The special driver certificate shall be issued only to an applicant who has cleared a criminal history background check by the Department of Justice and, if applicable, by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1) In order to determine the applicant's suitability as the driver of a vehicle used for the transportation of persons with developmental disabilities, the Department of the California Highway Patrol shall require the applicant to furnish to that department, on a form provided or approved by that department for submission to the Department of Justice, a full set of fingerprints sufficient to enable a criminal background investigation. (2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), an applicant shall furnish to the Department of the California Highway Patrol evidence of having resided in this state for seven consecutive years immediately prior to the date of application for the certificate. (3) If an applicant is unable to furnish the evidence required under paragraph (2), the Department of the California Highway Patrol shall require the applicant to furnish an additional full set of fingerprints. That department shall submit those fingerprint cards to the Department of Justice. The Department of Justice shall, in turn, submit the additional full set of fingerprints required under this paragraph to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for a national criminal history record check. (4) Applicant fingerprint forms shall be processed and returned to the area office of the Department of the California Highway Patrol from which they originated not later than 15 working days from the date on which the fingerprint forms were received by the Department of Justice, unless circumstances, other than the administrative duties of the Department of Justice, warrant further investigation. Upon implementation of an electronic fingerprinting system with terminals located statewide and managed by the Department of Justice, the Department of Justice shall ascertain the information required pursuant to this subdivision within three working days. (5) The applicant shall pay, in addition to the fees authorized in Section 2427, a fee of twenty-five dollars ($25) for an original certificate and twelve dollars ($12) for the renewal of that certificate to the Department of the California Highway Patrol. (c) A certificate issued under this section shall not be deemed a certification to operate a particular vehicle that otherwise requires a driver's license or endorsement for a particular class under this code. (d) On or after March 1, 1998, no person who operates a business or a nonprofit organization or agency shall employ a person who is employed primarily as a driver of a motor vehicle for hire that is used for the transportation of persons with developmental disabilities unless the employed person operates the motor vehicle in compliance with subdivision (a). (e) Nothing in this section precludes an employer of persons who are occasionally used as drivers of motor vehicles for the transportation of persons with developmental disabilities from requiring those persons, as a condition of employment, to obtain a special driver certificate pursuant to this section or precludes any volunteer driver from applying for a special driver certificate. (f) As used in this section, a person is employed primarily as driver if that person performs at least 50 percent of his or her time worked including, but not limited to, time spent assisting persons onto and out of the vehicle, or at least 20 hours a week, whichever is less, as a compensated driver of a motor vehicle for hire for the transportation of persons with developmental disabilities. (g) This section does not apply to any person who has successfully completed a background investigation prescribed by law, including, but not limited to, health care transport vehicle operators, or to the operator of a taxicab regulated pursuant to Section 21100. This section does not apply to a person who holds a valid certificate, other than a farm labor vehicle driver certificate, issued under Section 12517.4 or 12527. This section does not apply to a driver who provides transportation on a noncommercial basis to persons with developmental disabilities. 12524. (a) No class A, class B, or class C driver's licenseholder shall operate a vehicle hauling fissile class III shipments or large quantity radioactive materials, as defined in Section 173.403 of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, unless the driver possesses a valid license of the appropriate class and a radioactive materials driver's certificate, issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles, which permits the driver to operate those vehicles. (b) Applicants for the certificates shall present evidence to the Department of Motor Vehicles that they have successfully completed the radioactive materials hauler driving training course developed by the Department of Motor Vehicles and the Department of the California Highway Patrol before a certificate may be issued. Either the employer of the driver or a driving school licensed pursuant to Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 11100) of Division 5 may administer the training course. (c) The certificate shall be issued only to applicants qualified by examinations prescribed by the Department of Motor Vehicles and the Department of the California Highway Patrol. These examinations shall be conducted by the Department of Motor Vehicles, and an examination fee of twelve dollars ($12) shall be paid by the applicant to the Department of Motor Vehicles. (d) Any application for an original radioactive materials driver's certificate or renewal of the certificate and any radioactive materials driver's certificate issued pursuant to this section shall be subject to the provisions of Section 13369. 12525. Mechanics or other maintenance personnel may operate vehicles requiring a schoolbus endorsement or certificates issued pursuant to Section 2512, 12517, 12519, 12523, or 12523.5 without obtaining a schoolbus endorsement or those certificates if that operation is within the course of their employment and they do not transport pupils or members of the public. 12527. In addition to satisfying all requirements specified in this code and regulations adopted pursuant to this code, an applicant for an ambulance driver certificate shall satisfy all of the following requirements: (a) Except as otherwise provided, every ambulance driver responding to an emergency call or transporting patients shall be at least 18 years of age, hold a driver's license valid in California, possess a valid ambulance driver certificate, and be trained and competent in ambulance operation and the use of safety and emergency care equipment required by the California Code of Regulations governing ambulances. (b) Except as provided in subdivision (f), no person shall operate an ambulance unless the person has in his or her immediate possession a driver's license for the appropriate class of vehicle to be driven, and a certificate issued by the department to permit the operation of an ambulance. (c) An ambulance driver certificate may be issued by the department only upon the successful completion of an examination conducted by the department and subject to all of the following conditions: (1) An applicant for an original or renewal driver certificate shall submit a report of medical examination on a form approved by the department, the Federal Highway Administration, or the Federal Aviation Administration. The report shall be dated within the two years preceding the application date. (2) An applicant for an original driver certificate shall submit an acceptable fingerprint card. (3) The certificate to drive an ambulance shall be valid for a period not exceeding five years and six months and shall expire on the same date as the driver's license. The ambulance driver certificate shall be valid only when both of the following conditions exist: (A) The certificate is accompanied by a medical examination certificate that was issued within the preceding two years and approved by the department, Federal Highway Administration, or Federal Aviation Administration. (B) A copy of the medical examination report from which the certificate was issued is on file with the department. (4) The ambulance driver certificate is renewable under conditions prescribed by the department. Except as permitted under paragraphs (2) and (3) of subdivision (d), applicants renewing an ambulance driver certificate shall possess certificates or licenses evidencing compliance with the emergency medical training and educational standards for ambulance attendants established by the Emergency Medical Service Authority. (d) (1) Every ambulance driver shall have been trained to assist the ambulance attendant in the care and handling of the ill and injured. Except as provided in paragraph (2), the driver of a California-based ambulance shall, within one year of initial issuance of the driver's ambulance driver certificate, possess a certificate or license evidencing compliance with the emergency medical training and educational standards established for ambulance attendants by the Emergency Medical Service Authority. In those emergencies requiring both the regularly assigned driver and attendant to be utilized in providing patient care, the specialized emergency medical training requirement shall not apply to persons temporarily detailed to drive the ambulance. (2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to an ambulance driver who is a volunteer driver for a volunteer ambulance service under the circumstances specified in this paragraph, if the service is provided in the unincorporated areas of a county with a population of less than 125,000 persons, as determined by the most recent federal decennial census. The operation of an ambulance under this paragraph shall only apply if the name of the driver and the volunteer ambulance service and facts substantiating the public health necessity for an exemption are submitted to the department by the county board of supervisors and by at least one of the following entities in the county where the driver operates the ambulance: (A) The county health officer. (B) The county medical care committee. (C) The local emergency medical services agency coordinator. (3) The information required by paragraph (2) shall be submitted to the department at the time of application for an ambulance driver certificate. Upon receipt of that information, the department shall restrict the certificate holder to driving an ambulance for the volunteer ambulance service. (4) The director may terminate any certificate issued pursuant to paragraph (2) at any time the department determines that the qualifying conditions specified therein no longer exist. (5) The exemption granted pursuant to paragraph (2) shall expire on the expiration date of the ambulance driver certificate. (e) A person holding a valid certificate to permit the operation of an ambulance, issued prior to January 1, 1991, shall not be required to reapply for a certificate to satisfy the requirements of this section until the certificate he or she holds expires or is canceled or revoked. (f) An ambulance certificate is not required for persons operating ambulances in the line of duty as salaried, regular, full-time police officers, deputy sheriffs, or members of a fire department of a public agency. This exemption does not include volunteers and part-time employees or members of a department whose duties are primarily clerical or administrative.

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